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Islamic Thought: A brief flashback

Before Islam came into existence Makah was the place where many dominant empires of the time use to influence the city. The individuals living in Makah at that time belonged to a tribe called Quraish. There was no agriculture due to barren land. People use to use their caravans and camels for their livelihood and mostly depended upon the trading system.
Makah after the emergence of Islam became the holy place for Muslims as Kabah is situated there which is a sacred place for all the Muslim community. It is where our Last messenger Muhammad SAW was born 570 CE.His father Hazrat Abdullah died before his birth while His mother Amina died during the early stages of his childhood.He was took cared by his relatives. At the age of twenty, he married to Hazrat Khadija (RA) who was a widow and was the forty-year-old lady. Holy Prophet SAW managed his wife’s business and lived an unexceptional life until the age of forty when he received the first revelation of Islam in the cave of Hira where he uses to medicate in 610 CE.
In the beginning, he was afraid of the experience he had in the cave that later he received many other divine revelations which made him started preaching to His family and close friends.His initial revelations included Tauhid meaning the belief in the oneness of Allah and that care should be provided to the vulnerable and needy people. People of the time in Makah use to worship many Gods which were placed in sacred Kabah due to which believing in the oneness of Allah was quite disagreeable. Many retaliated to the claims of the Holy Prophet SAW, but some of his close friends and residents of Makah accepted His teachings. Those who opposed started creating hurdles in the way of Him and His small number of followers by torturing them. He, therefore, ordered His followers to vacant the city and seek the help of Negus –the Christian ruler of Abyssinia. It was Negus who helped Muslims to start and practice their new religion freely under his prosecution.A Large number of people began to follow Islam including the people of Yasrib which is a town to the north of the Makah which later renamed as Madina (the city of Prophet SAW).In 622 CE, He migrated to Madina with His Makkan followers who joined hands together with Madian and formed brotherhood. It was Madina from where Islam spread widely and, therefore, Madina became the base for Islam. In 11/632 CE Holy Prophet SAW died.By that time, a fully established Islamic state was being set up under the control of Muslim.
The immediate followers of Prophet Muhammad SAW were called ‘Sahabas’ who explained the verses and meanings of the Quranic messages. People of the same holy books were referred to as ‘Ahl e Kitab’.Further, there came an interest in collecting and compiling hadiths of the Prophet SAW.
A newly developed Islamic state faced very difficult time after the 30 years of the death of the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Many religious sects emerged in Umayyad period (41-132/661-750) such as kharijis (people who resented Caliph Ali and remained hostile to Umayyads ),Qadri’s (followers of monotheism ) Shias (supported caliph Ali ) and Sunnis ( the main ones and those who follow sunnah) etc. Islam includes knowledge of every aspect called the ‘Islamic Science’.
Furthermore , the primary foundations laid by Islam particularly Quran, its interpretation, also addresses the issues of Quran as a revelation.Additionally, it deals with the sunnah way of doing things and explains shariah and fiqh laws.Moreover, many Muslims contributed philosophically to the development of Islam also, Muslim’s political thoughts and systems, as well as reforms in Islam, was also being practiced there.

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