Public Diplomacy throygh Nation Branding
Nation Branding in some scholarly view is simple implementing corporate branding techniques within country that is on domestic grounds. This article examines the differences, similarities between the two domains followed by the advantages that are being mutually shared and also their effect on nation’s image, behavior and reputation in front of world.
Public diplomacy is to explain and speak in favor of government policies and to represent a nation to foreign public. Public diplomacy is actually government to people interaction that comprise government effort to influence the public or elite views internationally and also the foreign policy activity of the targeted country. Today approaches of information and communication domestic as well as overseas affected by new communication tools are various.
Nation Branding often refers to mere application of branding techniques and tools for nation branding, it implies concerns regarding branding and marketing communication techniques to promote nation’s image. It also functions to better state’s reputation and enhance its image on globally. Nation Branding occurs when government or private company uses its power to persuade whoever has the ability to change the image of nation. It uses the tools of branding to alter the behavior, attitude, identity or image of a nation in a positive way.
Public diplomacy tends to target a particular group of cultural or political elites, nation branding targets mass audiences, which gives it a broader influence towards the public in a target nation and more ‘public’ than public diplomacy Public affairs function is therefore to justify or cell foreign policy decision domestically after policies have been formulated it also involve strategy of promotion and persuasion and were closely related to self-interest and impression. For instance, both refer to communication and attraction as the means to achieve strategic goals, and therefore they are both instruments of soft power. It is argued that nation branding aims at both domestic and foreign publics as equally important targets.
However, whatever the drawbacks and shortcomings, and how deeply negative the country perception is, there couldn’t be a better time than this to make a serious effort by government towards presenting the actual Pakistan to the world. If media represent Pakistan in a positive light, it will help to improve the world awareness and then create a positive image of Muslims in general.
Nation Branding can be specified as the place branding, it implies to mere application of nation state and tools for branding techniques. Nation Branding often refers to mere application of branding techniques and tools for nation branding, it implies concerns regarding branding and marketing communication techniques to promote nation’s image. It also functions to better state’s reputation and enhance its image on globally.
Nation Branding occurs when government or private company uses its power to persuade whoever has the ability to change the image of nation. It uses the tools of branding to alter the behavior, attitude, identity or image of a nation in a positive way.
Nation Branding can be conceptualized individually from branding.
“It is strategic self-presentation of a country with an aim of creating reputational capital through economic, political and social interest promotion of home at abroad”
There are three different arenas where concept of branding is implied that are nation, state and country .On country level it occurs when public speaks to public, it is not merely the matter of civil servants or elite figures of a nation, in fact it is about the dealing and business of a common man and their interaction with the world on daily basis. Whereas Nation implies to group of people who share common identities, history and destiny, they are the ones who strive independently for the common cause of statehood while state is considered to be the entity which is set of disposition, institution which is responsible for encamping government which is tool that bring change. Country usually refers to the geographical locality or place where specific culture is produced, in that scenario it is also termed as place branding instead of country branding, whereas nation branding implies to the collection of different cultures and identities at very same place under the umbrella of Nation.
Public diplomacy can simply be defined as:
“A way with which the government and the private individuals and groups can directly or indirectly influence those public opinions and positions, which directly influence the foreign politics decisions of another government” Signitzer and Coombs (1992: 138)
The way pubic diplomacy is defined by government may influence its practice. Contextualization of public diplomacy can be influence by history and culture of particular country while nation branding is more uniform concept.
Kathy Fitzpatrick a communication scholar also proposed relationship management as general theory of public diplomacy and called for relational paradigm to replace soft power as a core name for public diplomacy
In nation branding it all the policies that encompass public diplomacies is nothing else foreign policy communication dimension. Public diplomacy through nation branding involves certain advantages like:
1. Make public diplomacies more strategic facilitate strategic planning and coordination
2. It increase the competiveness in globalizing world
3. It generate addition domestic as well as international media coverage for the countries as the branding initiative and campaigns of media coverage
4. Successful nation branding campaign does attract foreign investment, tourists and inhabitants, which contributes to the economic development and modernization of the state. For example, Spain’s branding campaign “Everything Under The Sun” has made the state the second most popular tourist destination in the world and has contributed to the modernization of the state
5. It visualizes bring creativity and fresh goods out to foreign public as nation branding targets.
6. Branding helps to combat negative perceptions and stereotypes.
7. Nation Branding is as a way of fighting the trend towards modernization, which has a tendency to produce global uniformity, homogenizing cultural, political and economic factors around the world
Public diplomacy is core holder of government’s policies and implementation whereas Nation Branding do not directly refer to government but the government is usually consider as inhibitor of initiator of Nation Branding. However, establishing a National Branding Council is no simple task. Support from key stakeholders – the government, the business sector and the public must be on board on this project. And most importantly, financial support from the government will be crucial in the establishment of this council. Once the council has been set up, the challenge is maintaining smooth coordination between and among the government and private sectors. Another issue is harnessing the power of the Philippine diaspora around the world.
But the most important challenge is having clear branding image objectives like what is it for? Is it to attract investments? Is it to increase competitiveness of the country’s exports? Is it for tourism or destination branding? Is it to become an education hub? In other words, the key objectives including messages must be clearly defined which is done by many scholars.
Though there are certain differences as well which made them follow separate domain from each other. Public diplomacy seeks to promote political interest and is mainly targeted at active foreign citizens and elites who may influence the decisions of foreign governments; the main actors are governmental organizations, Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, etc. Meanwhile, nation branding seeks to promote economic interest, it is targeted at general masses domestic and foreign and is mainly exercised by such actors as trade and tourism boards, chambers of commerce etc. because public diplomacy primarily seeks to promote the political interest- to create receptive environment to its foreign policy goals – it has to identify common values in order to unify and attract people. On the other hand, because nation branding is concerned with economic interest- to attract foreign investment and tourists- it has to emphasize the uniqueness of the state in order to enhance state’s competitiveness in a global market As a result, nation branding largely remains in marketing discipline while public diplomacy is related to international relations. In other words the main difference between public diplomacy and nation branding is that the former regards the society as the community of citizens, while the latter perceive the society as the community of consumers. Public diplomacy involves cultural, educational and information exchanges in order to encourage mutual understanding and dialogue and puts a great emphasis on the content of the message. Nation branding is more concerned with the image rather than content of the message and therefore heavily relies on visuals and symbols which are sent through the mass media.
In UK public diplomacy aim is to inform and engage individuals and organizations to improve understanding and influence of nation branding UK government has its long term goal to achieve nation interest through branding of their products by the people
German public diplomacy discuss and explain Germany’s domestic and foreign to have linkage between public and branding
Eastern Europe countries were 1st to introduce the idea of nation branding they had high expectation to better the poor image of themselves abroad it all started after initiation of euphoria of engaging in some forms of nation branding
Many countries have turned nation branding as a response to specific issues or problem such as membership in international organization and change or regime which rely upon network of embassies and local agency in particular countries
The turning point in South Korea’s nation branding efforts was in 2009. President Lee Myung-back created the Presidential Council on Nation Branding (PCNB) to deal with the country’s underdeveloped international reputation.
In Kazakhstan and Borat governments have controlled and influenced over their public diplomacy efforts however nation branding can be hijacked by the foreign government media or even a single person. In these cases public diplomacy can have important function in protecting and defending countries reputation and correcting poor images and stereotypes to neutralize them.
In conclusion, nation branding and public diplomacy are both dynamic processes, which reflect the ability of a country to build and manage its attractiveness to achieve its strategic goals. Nevertheless, effective branding would require a coherent long-term strategy by states with adequate financial and human resources in order to create a better image and reputation of themselves in the world. Nation Branding is an important tool in managing a country’s identity across the globe2 forming part of public diplomacy, In other words public diplomacy and nation branding should be seen as complementary rather than competitive concepts. First, nation branding is a perfect choice to states who are successful domestically but are too small to be visible worldwide, because public diplomacy requires more resources. Second, even bigger states which have successful public diplomacy should engage in nation branding as the one helps to maintain distinctive identity and cultural heritage in the globalized world. Third, as the modern society is more and more influenced by the mass media and consumption (of images, products, etc.) nation branding by selling images may become even more effective tool than public diplomacy in the future. The quotation below shows what the EU needs in order to be a high – profile actor in the global arena.